The use of the chemical may present a certain hazard to the laboratory workers
2.They agreed to settle the dispute by peaceful means.
3.The children trembled with fear when they saw the policeman.
4.We have got to abide by the rules.
A stick to
B. persist in
5.The river widens considerably as it begins to turn east.
6.The curious look from the strangers around her made her feel uneasy.
7.Reading the job ad, he wondered whether he was eligible to apply for it.
8.These are our motives for doing it.
9.Smoking is not permitted in the office.
10.I feel regret about whats happened.
11.They always mock me because I am ugly.
A. smile at
B. look down on
D. laugh at
12.Guests were scared when the bomb exploded.
13.They are endeavoring to change society as a whole
14.The story was touching.
15.Although originally a German innovation, kindergarten got its real start in the United States as a movement to provide an improved learning environment for children.
A. an easy
B. a playful
C. an open
D. a better
Why is the Native Language Learnt So Well
How does it happen that children learn their mother tongue so well? When we compare them with adults learning a foreign language, we often find this interesting fact. A little child without knowledge or experience often succeeds in a complete mastery of the language. A grown-up person with fully developed mental powers, in most case, may end up with a faulty and inexact command. What accounts for this difference?
Despite other explanations, the real answer in my opinion lies partly in the child himself, partly in the behavior of the people around him. In the first place, the time of learning the mother tongue is the most favorable of all, namely, the first years of life. A child hears it spoken from morning till night and, what is more important, always in its genuine form, with the right pronunciation, right intonation, right use of words and right structure. He drinks in all the words and expressions, which come to him in a flash, ever-bubbling spring. There is no resistance: there is perfect assimilation.
Then the child has, as it were, private lessons all the year round, while an adult language-student has each week a limited number of hours, which he generally shares with others. The child has another advantage: he hears the language in all possible situations, always accompanied by the right kind of gestures and facial expressions. Here there is nothing unnatural, such as is often found in language lessons in schools, when one talks about ice and snow in June or scorching heat in January. And what a child hears is generally what immediately interests him. Again and again, when his attempts at speech are successful, his desires are understood and fulfilled.
Finally, though a childs teachers may not have been trained in language teaching, their relations with him are always close and personal. They take great pains to make their lessons easy.
1. Compared with adults learning a foreign language, children learn their native language with ease.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
2. Adults knowledge and mental powers hinder their complete mastery of a foreign language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
3. The reason why children learn their mother tongue so well lies solely in their environment of learning.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
4. Plenty of practice in listening during the first years of life partly ensures childrens success of learning their mother tongue.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
5. A child learning his native language has the advantage of having private lessons all the year round.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
6. Gestures and facial expressions may assist a child in mastering his native language.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
7. So far as language teaching is concerned, the teachers close personal relationship with the student is more important than the professional language teaching training he has received.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned
Heartbeat of America
1. New York - the Statue of Liberty, the skyscrapers, the beautiful shops on Fifth Avenue and the many theaters on Broadway. This is Americas cultural capital. It is also her biggest city, with a population of nearly 8 million. In the summer it is hot, hot, hot and in the winter it can be very cold. Still there are hundreds of things to do and see all the year round.
2. Manhattan is the real center of the city. When people say New York City, they usually mean Manhattan. Most of the interesting shops, buildings and museums are here. In addition, Manhattan is the scene of New Yorks busy night life. In 1605 the first Europeans came to Manhattan from Holland. They bought the island from the Native Americans for a few glass necklaces worth about $26 today.
3. Wall street in Manhattan is the financial heart of the USA. It is also the most important banking center in the world. It is a street of skyscrapers. These are those incredible, high buildings, which Americans invented, and built faster and higher than anyone else. Perhaps the two most spectacular skyscrapers in New York are the two towers of the New York World Trade Center. When the sun sets, their 110 floors shine like pure gold.
4. Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic jams can be terrible. Its usually quickest to go by subway. The New York subway is easy to use and quite cheap. The subway goes to almost every corner of Manhattan. But it is not safe to take the subway late at night because in some places you could get robbed. New York buses are also easy to use. You see more if you go by bus. There are more than 30,000 taxis in New York. They are easy to see, because they are bright yellow and carry large TAXI signs. Taxis do not go outside the city. However, they will go to the airports. In addition to the taxi fare, people give the taxi driver a tip of 15 percent of the fares value.
5. Central Park is a beautiful green oasis in the middle of New Yorks concrete desert. It is surprisingly big, with lakes and woods, as well as organized recreation areas. New Yorkers love Central Park, and they use it all the time. In the winter, they go ice-skating, and in the summer roller-skating. They play ball, ride horses and have picnics. They go bicycling and boating. There is even a childrens zoo, with wild birds and animals.
6. Along the east side of Central Park runs Fifth Avenue, once called Millionaires Row. In the 19th century, the richest men in America built their magnificent homes here. It is still the most fashionable street in the city, with famous department stores.
7. Broadway is the street where you will find New Yorks best-known theaters. But away from the bright lights and elegant clothes of Broadway are many smaller theaters. Their plays are called off-Broad-way and are often more unusual than the Broadway shows. As well as many theaters, New York has a famous opera house. This is the Metropolitan, where international stars sing from September until April. Carnegie Hall is the citys more popular concert hall. But night life in New York offers more than classical music and theater. There are hundreds of nightclubs where people go to eat and dance.
1. Paragraph 3______
2. Paragraph 4______
3. Paragraph 5______
4. Paragraph 6______
A The Financial Center of USA
B The Night Life in New York
C The Traffic Facilities of New York
D Shopping Center for the Rich
E New York - An International City
F Central Park - A Place of Recreation for the New Yorkers
5. The island of Manhattan was bought by the Hollanders from the native Americans______ .
6. Central Park is a good place where the New Yorkers can go and______ .
7. Fifth Avenue is the place______ .
8. For those play-lovers who are interested in what is unusual, the small theaters might be more attractive______ .
A do whatever they like for relaxation
B where you can play all kinds of ball games
C than the world famous Broadway
D enjoy the colorful night life of the city
E where the wealthy people would go shopping
F for what seems to be a very small sum today
Medical journals are publications that report medical information to physicians and other health professionals.
In the past, these journals were available only in print. With the development of electronic publishing, many medical journals now have Web sites on the Internet, and some journals publish only online. A few medical journals, like the Journal of the American Medical Association, are considered general medical journals because they cover many fields of medicine. Most medical journals are specialty journals that focus on a particular area of medicine.
Medical journals publish many types of articles. Research articles report the results of research studies on a range of topics varying from the basic mechanisms of diseases to clinical trials that compare outcomes of different treatments. Review articles summarize and analyze the information available on a specific topic based on a careful search of the medical literature.
Because the results of individual research studies can be affected by many factors, combining results from different studies on the same topic can be helpful in reaching conclusions about the scientific evidence for preventing, diagnosing or treating a particular disease. Case conferences and case reports may be published in medical journals to educate physicians about particular illnesses and how to treat at them. Editorials in medical journals are short essays that express the views of the authors, often regarding a research or review article published in the same issue.
Editorials provide perspective on how the current article fits with other information on the same topic. Letters to the editor provide a way for readers of the medical journal to express comments, questions or criticisms about articles published in that journal.
1. The main readers of medical journals are _____
A) the general public.
C) medical critics.
2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A) Many medical journals also publish online.
B) A few medical journals are general medical journals.
C) Most medical journals publish only online.
D) Most medical journals are specialty journals.
3. How many major types of articles are mentioned in the passage?
4. An article dealing with results from different studies on the same topic is called ______
A) a research article.
B) a review article.
C) a case report.
D) an editorial.
5. Letters to the editor enable readers of a medical journal to express comments on ______
A) any medical event.
B) articles published in the same issue.
C) articles published in that journal.
D) medical development.
Ford Abandons Electric Vehicles
The Ford motor companys abandonment of electric cars effectively signals the end of the road for the technology, analysts say.
General Motors and Honda ceased production of battery-powered cars in 1999, to focus on fuel cell and hybrid electric gasoline engines, which are more attractive to the consumer. Ford has now announced it will do the same.
Three years ago, the company introduced the Think City two-seater car and a golf cart called the THINK, or Think Neighbor. It hoped to sell 5,000 cars each year and 10,000 carts. But a lack of demand means only about l,000 of the cars have been produced, and less than 1,700 carts have been sold so far in 2002.
The bottom line is we dont believe that this is the future of environment transport for the mass market.Tim Holmes of Ford Europe said on Friday,We feel we have given electric our best shot.
The Think City has a range of only about 53 miles and up to a six-hour battery recharge time. General MotorsEVI electric vehicle also had a limited range of about 100 miles.
The very expensive batteries also mean electric cars cost much more than petrol-powered alternatives. An electric Toyota RAV4 EV vehicle costs over $42,000 in the US, compared with just $17,000 for the petrol version. Toyota and Nissan are now the only major auto manufacturers to produce electric vehicles.
There is a feeling that battery electric has been given its chance. Ford now has to move on with its hybrid program, and that is what we will be judging them on,Roger Higman, a senior transport campaigner at UK Friends of the Earth, told the Environment News Service.
Hybrid cars introduced by Toyota and Honda in the past few years have sold well. Hybrid engines Offer Greater mileage than petrol-only engines, and the batteries recharge themselves. Ford says it thinks such vehicles will help it meet planned new guidelineson vehicle emissions in the US.
However, it is not yet clear exactly what those guidelines will permit. In June, General Motors and Daimler Chrysler won a court injunction, delaying by two years Californian legislation requiring car-makers to offer 100,000 zero-emission and other low-emission vehicles in the state by 2003. Car manufacturers hope the legislation will be rewritten to allow for more low-emission, rather than zero-emission, vehicles.
1. What have the Ford motor company General Motors and Honda done concerning electric cars?
A) They have started to produce electric cars.
B) They have done extensive research on electric cars.
C) They have given up producing electric cars.
D) They have produced thousands of electric cars.
2. According to Tim Holmes of Ford Europe，battery-powered cars _____ .
A)will be the main transportation vehicles in the future
B)will not be the main transportation vehicles in the future
C)will be good to the environment in the future
D)will replace petrol-powered vehicles in the future
3. Which auto manufacturers are still producing electric vehicles?
A)Toyota and Nissan
B)General Motors and Honda
C)Ford and Toyota
D)Honda and Toyota
4. According to the eighth paragraph, hybrid cars
A)offer fewer mileage than petrol driven cars.
B)run faster than petrol driven cars.
C)run more miles than petrol driven cars.
D)offer more batteries than petrol driven cars.
5. Which of the following is true about the hope of car manufacturers according to the last paragraph?
A)Low-emission cars should be banned.
B)Only zero-emission cars are allowed to run on motorways.
C)The legislation will encourage car makers to produce more electric cars.
D)The legislation will allow more low-emission to be produced.
New U.S.Plan for Disease Prevention
Urging Americans to take responsibility for their health, Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson on Tuesday launched a $15 million program to try to encourage communities to do more to prevent chronic diseases like heart disease, cancer and diabetes.
The initiative highlights the cost of chronic diseases 一 the leading causes of death in the United States and outlines ways that people can prevent them, including better diet and increased exercise.
In the United States today, 7 of 10 deaths and the vast majority of serious illness, disability and health care costs are caused by chronic diseases,the Health and Human Services Department said in a statement.
The causes are often behaviora smoking, poor eating habits and a lack of exercise.
I am convinced that preventing disease by promoting better health is a smart policy choice for our future,Thompson told a conference held to launch the initiatiative.
Our current health care system is not structured to deal with the escalating costs of treating diseases that are largely preventable through changes in our lifestyle choices.
Thompson said heart disease and strokes will cost the country more than $351 billion in 2003.
These leading causes of death for men and women are largely preventable, yet we as a nation are not taking the steps necessary for US to lead healthier, longer lives，he said.
The $15 million is slated to go to communities to promote prevention, pushing for changes as simple as building sidewalks to encourage people to walk more.
Daily exercise such as walking can prevent and even reverse heart disease and diabetes, and prevent cancer and strokes.
The money will also go to community organizations, clinics and nutritionists who are being encouraged to work together to educate people at risk of diabetes about what they can do to prevent it and encourage more cancer screening.
The American Cancer Society estimates that half of all cancers can be caught by screening, including Pap tests for cervical cancer, mammograms for breast cancer, colonoscopies, and prostate checks.
If such cancers were all caught by early screening, the group estimates that the survival rate for cancer would rise to 95 percent.
1. Which of the following is NOT true of chronic diseases in the US?
A)They account for 70% of all deaths.
B)They are responsible for most of the health care costs.
C)They often result in unhealthy lifestyles.
D)They are largely preventable.
2. The author mentions all the following as ways of disease prevention EXCEPT
C)reduction on smoking.
D)higher survival rate for cancer.
3. The article indicates that more money spent on disease prevention will mean ______ .
A)greater responsibility of the government
B)much less money needed for disease treatment
C)higher costs of health care
D)more 1ifestyle choices for people
4. The $15 million program is aimed at ______ .
A)promoting disease prevention
B)building more sidewalks
C)helping needy communities
D)wiping out chronic diseases
5. Early cancer screening can help reduce significantly ______ .
A)the death rates for all chronic diseases
B)the kinds of cancer attacking people
C)the cancer incidence rate
D)cancer death rate
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig Van Beethoven, a major composer of the nineteenth century, overcame many personal problems to achieve artistic greatness.
Born in Bonn, Germany, in 1770, he first studied music with the court organist, Gilles van der Eeden. His father was excessively strict and given to heavy drinking. ____ (1) ____. Appointed deputy court organist to Christian Gottlob Neefe at a surprisingly early age in 1782, Beethoven also played the harpsichord and the viola. In 1792 he was sent to Vienna by his patron, Count Ferdinand Waldstein, to study music under Haydn.
Beethoven remained unmarried. ____ (2) ____. Continually plagued by ill health, he developed an ear infection which led to his tragic deafness in 1819.
____ (3) ____ He completed mature masterpieces of great musical depth: three piano sonatas, four string quartets, the Missa Solemnis, and the 9th Symphony. He died in 1827. ____ (4) ____ .
Noting that Beethoven often flew into fits of rage, Goethe once said of him, I am astonished by his talent, but he is unfortunately an altogether untamed personality. ____ (5) ____ .
A In spite of this handicap, however, he continued to write music.
B Because of irregular payments from his publishers and erratic support from his patrons, he was troubled by financial worries throughout his adult life.
C His life was marked by a passionate dedication to independence.
D When his mother died, Beethoven, then a young man, was named guardian of his two younger brothers.
E Although Beethovens personality may have been untamed, his music shows great discipline and control, and this is how we remember him best.
F Today his music is still being played all over the world.
One Good Reason to Let Smallpox Live
Its now a fair bet that we will never see the total extinction of the smallpox virus. The idea was to cap the glorious achievement of 1980, when smallpox was eradicated in the wild, by destroying the killer virus in the last two labs that are supposed to have it one in the US and one in Russia. If smallpox had truly gone from the planet, what point was there in keeping these reserves?
__1__reality, of course, it was naive to __2 __ that everyone would let __3__ of such a potent potential weapon. Undoubtedly several nations still have__4__ vials. __5__ the lastofficialstocks of live virus bred mistrust of the US and Russia,__6__ no obvious gain.
Now American researchers have __7__ an animal model of the human disease, opening the __8__for tests on new treatments and vaccines. So once again theres a good reason to__9__ the virus just in __10__ the disease puts in a reappearance.
How do we __11__ with the mistrust of the US and Russia? __12__. Keep the virus __13__ international auspices in a well-guarded UN laboratory thats open to all countries.The US will object, of course, just as it rejects a multilateral approach to just about everything. But it doesnt __14__the idea is wrong. If the virus __15__ useful, then lets make it the servant of all humanity not just a part of it.
1. A) In B) On C) At D)For
2. A)know B) imagine C) realize D)be aware
3. A)to go B) going C) go D) went
4. A) much B) more C) most D) a few
5. A)And B) While C) Whereas D) Although
6. A)since B) for C) because D) of
7. A)looked for B) sought C) found D) talked about
8. A)method B) road C) street D) way
9. A)keep B) put C) destroy D) eradicate
10.A)need B) case C) necessity D) time
11.A)handle B) tackle C)deal D) treat
12.A) Difficult B) Hard C) Safe D) Simple
13.A) under B) in C) on D) for
14.A)say B) mean C) state D) declare
15.A) will be B) would be C) is D) are
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