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  PASSAGE 20

  Architecture

  Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. The best buildings are often so well constructed that they outlast their original use. They then survive not only as beautiful objects, but as documents of the history of cultures. These achievements are never wholly the work of individuals. Architecture is a social art.

  The renaissance brought about an entirely new age, not only in philosophy and literature but in the visual arts as well. In architecture, the principles and styles of ancient Greece and Rome were brought back to life and reinterpreted. They remain dominant until the 20th century.

  Many kinds of stone are used as building materials. Stone and marble were chosen for important monuments because they are not burnable and can be expected to endure. Stone architecture was often blended with stone sculpture. The use of stone has declined, however, because a number of other materials are more adaptable to industrial use.

  The complexity of modern life calls for a variety of building. More people live in mass housing and go to work in large office buildings; they spend their income in large shopping centers, send their children to many different kinds of schools, and when they are sick they go to specialized hospitals and clinics. All theses different types of buildings accumulated experiences needed by their designers.

  By the middle of the 20th century, modern architecture, which was influenced by new technology and mass production, was dealing with increasingly complex social needs. Important characteristics of modern architectural works are expanses of glass and the use of reinforced concrete. Advances in elevator technology, air conditioning, and electric lighting have all had important effects.

  EXERCISE:

  1. Paragraph 2_____________.

  2. Paragraph 3_____________.

  3. Paragraph 4_____________.

  4. Paragraph 5_____________.

  A Building materials

  B Need of greater building varieties in modern life

  C Restoration of ancient civilizations

  D Evolution in style

  E factors affecting modern architecture

  F A social art

  5.Some buildings ar

  e so well constructed that they are not only useful______.

  6.Ancient Greek and Roman architectural styles, which were restored during renaissance, were still influential _____.

  7. As modern life becomes more complex, people have to put up many different kinds of buildings _____.

  8. The use of new building materials and the introduction of such new technology as the elevator and the air-conditioner have played an important role ______.

  A to meet their needs

  B but also beautiful to look at

  C in the development of modern architecture

  D to design more buildings

  E even in the 20th century

  F to outlast their original use

  KEY: C A B E B E A C

  PASSAGE 21

  How to Argue with Your Boss

  Before you argue with your boss, check with the boss s secretary to determine his mood. If he ate nails for breakfast, it is not a good idea to ask him for something. Even without the boss s secretary, they are keys to timing: don t approach the boss when he s on deadline; don t go in right before lunch, when he is apt to be distracted and rushed; don t go in just before or after he has taken a vacation.

  If you re mad, that will only make your boss mad. Calm down first. And don t let a particular concern open the floodgates for all your accumulated frustration. The boss will feel that you think negatively about the company and it is hopeless trying to change your mind. Then, maybe he will dismiss you.

  Terrible disputes can result when neither the employer nor the employee knows what is the problem the other wants to discuss. Sometimes the fight will go away when the issues are made clear. The employee has to get his point across clearly in order to make the boss understand it.

  Your boss has enough on his mind without your adding more. If you can t put forward an immediate solution, at least suggest how to approach the problem. People who frequently present problems without solutions to their bosses may soon find they can t get past the secretary.

  To deal effectively with a boss, it s important to consider his goals and pressures. If you can put yourself in the position of being a partner to the boss, then he will be naturally more inclined to work with you to achieve your goals.

  EXERCISE:

  1. Paragraph 2____

  2. Paragraph 3____

  3. Paragraph 4____

  4. Paragraph 5____

  A Keep your voice low all the time

  B Put yourself in the boss s position

  C Propose your solution

  D Don t go in when you are angry

  E Make the issue clear

  F Never give in

  5. If you want to ask the boss for anything, it is important to find out first ______.

  6. It is necessary to make clear to the boss _____.

  7. It is not wise to present the boss with a problem _____

  8. You must be considerate and think of the troubles _____.

  A to give the boss your advice

  B how he is feeling

  C the boss may have

  D what you really want to talk to him about

  E without suggesting a way to solve it F how unhappy you are

  F how unhappy you are

  KEY: D E C B B D E C

 

  

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